The Republic of Uganda is a country located in East Africa, with capital Kampala. It lies astride the Equator, between latitudes 4o 12´ N and 1o 29´ S and longitudes 29o 34´ W, and 35o 0´ E, and is bordered to the east by Kenya, to the north by South Sudan, to the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, to the southwest by Rwanda and to the south by Tanzania. Although landlocked, the country lies in the heart of the African Great Lakes region, comprising the biggest lake in Africa, Lake Victoria, located in the southern part of the country and shared with Kenya and Tanzania, Lake Kyoga, and other minor lakes like Lake Albert, Lake Edward and the smaller Lake George.


Uganda is also home to the River Nile source and lies almost completely within the Nile basin: the Victoria Nile drains from Lake Victoria into Lake Kyoga and then into Lake Albert and finally runs northwards into South Sudan. On the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo are also located the Rwenzori Mountains, a mountain range that supports glaciers and is one source of the river Nile, as its highest peaks are permanently snow-capped. The climate is tropical and generally wet, with two dry seasons: from December to February and from June to August.

Population of Uganda

Population of Uganda (millions). Source: World Bank

According to an estimate from 2016, Uganda has a population of over 36 million people, compared to only about 5 millions in 1950. This growth is mainly due to a sharp decline in the infant mortality rate and better living conditions. Furthermore, Uganda has the youngest population in the world, with 77% of its inhabitants being under 30 years of age and 48.1% under the age of 15.

The country is divided in 111 districts, which are grouped into four administrative regions (Central, Western, Eastern and Northern). This decentralization is partly intended to prevent resources from being distributed only in cities, leaving the periphery neglected. The largest city is the capital Kampala, located in the southern part of the country on the shores of Lake Victoria, while other major cities are Kira, Mbarara and Entebbe, where the international airport is located.


In the country roughly 40 languages are spoken, most of which derive from two African language families; in order to respond to this ethnolinguistic diversity, two official languages were adopted: after the independence of Uganda from Great Britain in 1962 English kept its status of national language, while Swahili, a widely used language throughout the African Great Lakes region, was approved as the country’s second official national language in 2005.

Lake_Bunyonyi maxresdefault Uganda-Kob

Uganda has substantial natural resources, including deposits of copper, gold, and other minerals, and is characterized by fertile soils and regular rainfall. Recently, also oil deposits have been discovered. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the workforce; the main cash crops are coffee (which contributes for 19% of the country’s exports), cotton, tea, cocoa and tobacco. Other sectors contributing to the economy include manufacturing, tourism, mining and renewable energies (see Investment opportunities).

Uganda’s national coat of arms consists of a shield and two spears which represent stemmapicthe willingness of Ugandans to defend their country. Three images are on the shield: the waves on the top represent the Lake Victoria and Lake Albert; the sun stands for the abundance of sunny days which typify Uganda throughout the year; the percussion at the bottom symbolically outlines the dances of the population during meetings and ceremonies. On the right there is a crowned crane, the bird that is the national symbol of Uganda, while on the left the Ugandan Kob is present, which portraits the abundance of wildlife. The shield is placed on a green mound, representing the fecundity of the soil, and the river above it is the Nile. Coffee and cotton, the first two cash crops, lie aside the river. At the bottom is the national motto which states: “For God and for my Country”. The first who credited Uganda with the expression “Pearl of Africa” was the English Prime Minister Winston Churchill when, still a young member of the English parliament, he visited the country and described the Kingdom of Uganda as a fairy-tale.


The flag of Uganda consists of six equal horizontal bands, from the top: black, yellow and red. The three colors stand for the African people (black), the African sun (yellow), and the African brotherhood (red is the blood through which all Africans are connected). At the center there is a white disc depicting the grey crowned crane, the national symbol, facing the hoist side.



Oh Uganda! may God uphold thee,
We lay our future in thy hand.
United, free,
For liberty
Together we’ll always stand.

Oh Uganda! the land of freedom.
Our love and labour we give,
And with neighbours all
At our country’s call
In peace and friendship we’ll live.

Oh Uganda! the land that feeds us
By sun and fertile soil grown.
For our own dear land,
We’ll always stand,
The Pearl of Africa’s Crown.